From about 1100 to 1700 CE, there was a widely accepted method of weather prediction called astrometeorology.
As the name suggests, it was weather forecasting based on the positions of objects in the sky, such as planets and the Moon.
The April 2021 issue of Physics Today has a wonderful article outlining the history of astrometeorology and how it was applied.
In addition, there is actually quite a wealth of research and information from other sources about this forgotten method of weather prediction.
In simple terms, weather patterns were predicted based on the perceived qualities and positions of heavenly bodies.
It was thought that the planets emitted ‘rays’, which influenced weather here on Earth.
For example, Saturn was associated with cold, dry conditions, while Mercury was linked to warm, wet weather. Mars brought stormy, unsettled weather and Venus brought rain.
Often, Jupiter was thought to be responsible for pleasant weather.
When planets drew close together, their combined influence increased extreme weather, it was believed.
While these days, we might be quick to dismiss such thinking as ‘kook science’, that wasn’t the case during the medieval period.
Major thinkers like Ptolemy were on board with the concept.
In addition, early Christian and Islamic scientists also believed that the motions of the heavens had an impact on weather.
Astronomers Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe were believers in weather prediction by astrometeorology and even Christopher Columbus is said to have used it to forecast storms during his voyages.
Such beliefs persisted well into the modern era and even today, some people believe there is a least a subtle connection between the planets, the Moon, and our weather.
It would be safe to say that astrometeorology is the foundation of the weather forecasts we find in present-day almanacs.