As the ink dried Friday on a major budget compromise deal in Congress, immigration advocates were taking stock of getting left behind -- again -- without a resolution for hundreds of thousands of young undocumented immigrants on the verge of losing protections.
It's an open question if there are cards left to play in the push to enshrine the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals policy into law. While no advocates say they are giving up, many also openly admit that Democrats and allies gave up their best negotiating position on the issue without another clear avenue coming up.
In the meantime, a pending court decision on DACA, which President Donald Trump is terminating, means the immigrants protected by it and who mostly have never known another country than the US, won't begin losing their protections as planned on March 5 -- but their fate could be reversed at any moment by another court decision.
Rep. Luis Gutierrez, an Illinois Democrat who has long served as one of the most outspoken advocates in Congress for immigration reform, was pessimistic with reporters early Friday morning as Congress passed the deal with virtually every Democratic priority except DACA in it.
"No, I don't, I don't," he said when asked if there was any other way Democrats could exert leverage on the issue. Gutierrez said the plan from the beginning was to either attach a DACA compromise to the must-pass budget deal or raising the debt ceiling, both of which were passed in the early morning hours Friday without DACA. Arizona Democrat Raul Grijalva called the episode "disheartening."
"We have decoupled the issues. Your leverage is you want them one and the same," Gutierrez said. "Do we need a new way forward? Yeah, we're going to figure out a new way forward."
Step 1: Senate vote next week
There is one glimmer of hope for advocates. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell made good on his promise to tee up an immigration debate on the Senate floor next week. Moments after the Senate passed the deal, McConnell filed to have a vote to open debate on an unrelated bill Monday evening -- which will kick off a process where an as-yet-unknown number of amendments will be able to compete for a procedural threshold of 60 votes to then pass the Senate.
It was that promise that put in motion the deal that eventually severed DACA from other negotiations but also offers a rare opportunity for lawmakers to compete on a neutral playing field for bipartisan support.
"We're pivoting, what can you do?" said longtime advocate Frank Sharry, executive director of the pro-immigration group America's Voice. "We've had our doubts about the viability of a standalone legislative process but that's what we're left with, so we're hoping to make the most of it. ... That will put pressure on the President and the House to do the same."
Already, groups of lawmakers are preparing for the floor debate, even as it remains unclear how many amendments will be offered, how debate will be structured and how long it might last.
A group of roughly 20 bipartisan senators is drafting legislation over the weekend to offer perhaps multiple amendments and potentially keep the debate focused on a narrow DACA-border security bill. Advocates on the left may offer a clean DACA fix like the Dream Act, and some on the right are drafting a version of the White House proposal that would include $25 billion for a border wall and heavy cuts to legal immigration with a pathway to citizenship -- though neither is expected to have 60 votes.
"First of all, we have the Senate procedure, which is my hope. We're working with the (bipartisan group) to see if we can come to a two-pillar solution," said Sen. Bob Menendez, a New Jersey Democrat who has long worked on the issue, when asked Thursday what comes next for DACA. "Hopefully we could gather 60 votes for that. And then that would be it -- we'd resist everything else, any other amendments, and then go back to the House and create all the pressure in the House to make it happen."
Step 2: Pressure Ryan
If the Senate can pass a bill, lawmakers hope Trump will fully embrace it, freeing House Speaker Paul Ryan to call it up.
Already as the budget deal was on track for passage, House advocates began a pressure campaign to urge Ryan to make a promise like McConnell -- though Ryan continually demurred and insisted instead he's committed to the issue of immigration and passing a bill the President can support.
"I think we have to be realistic," said Arizona's Democratic Rep. Ruben Gallego. "We're going to have to deal with reality and find whatever means possible to put pressure on Speaker Ryan and the Republican Party to bring, again, a fair vote on the Dream Act to the floor."
"I think for me the strategy has to be pressure Ryan and bring it to the floor," Grijalva said, adding the process should allow any proposal to vie for a majority -- even if it doesn't have a majority of Republican votes. "The Senate, when they gave up on not voting for it, at the very minimum extracted a time certain and a debate on something. We don't even have that."
Democrats also may have some Republican supporters in the House to pressure Ryan. A bipartisan group of lawmakers that includes two dozen Republicans sent a letter to Ryan asking to open a floor debate like McConnell.
Republican Charlie Dent of Pennsylvania said he's been urging fellow moderates to use their numbers the way that conservatives on the right flank do.
"The Freedom Caucus has been effective because they'll use their power of 24 (votes to deny a majority), and they take the hostage, they'll do what they have to do," Dent said. "I tell our members, we put our votes together, we can really direct an outcome. ... I suspect if the Senate sends us a bipartisan DACA bill, that's when we're going to have to flex our muscles."
But others have doubts. Republican Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida, a member of the bipartisan group, says he learned his lesson in 2013, when he co-authored legislation that passed the Senate with wide margins but died in the House.
"There are some who believe that if we get a bunch of votes it'll force the House to do it. I don't agree," Rubio said. "We could vote on it 90-10. ... This notion that the House is going to listen to what a senator tells them to do is not real."
Step 3: Other leverage
If the legislative process can't produce success, advocates say, they will look for any other leverage points they can.
"If that doesn't work out, then there's still an omnibus at the end of the day," said Menendez, referring to the spending bills due in March to fund the government under the topline two-year budget deal passed Friday.
But Gutierrez doubted that approach -- scoffing at the idea that Democrats would be taken seriously if they threatened to withhold their votes yet again without success.
"Really?" Gutierrez said about the omnibus as leverage. "Is it plausible? Is it realistic? Can you continue to threaten with something?"
Other options could include a temporary, one-year or two-year extension of DACA without a permanent solution, though lawmakers have decried that option.
Still, many aren't ready to give up hope.
"This President clearly wants to get it done, I think the majority of Republicans want to get it done and the majority of Democrats want to get it done. Can we reach that balance? We can get there, I feel very confident we can get there," said Florida's Republican Rep. Mario Diaz-Balart.