South African President Jacob Zuma was fighting for his political life Monday as he resisted attempts from inside the ruling African National Congress party leadership to oust him.
Clashes broke out between ANC party activists and pro-Zuma supporters from the small Black First Land First group outside the ANC headquarters in Johannesburg as the party's national working committee, one of its highest decision-making bodies, met to discuss the leadership crisis.
Senior ANC leaders met Zuma over the weekend to reportedly ask him to step down, but he refused, according to local media reports.
The working committee would need to call a full ANC leadership meeting as an extraordinary measure if the party was bent on throwing out Zuma.
One possibility is that Zuma will be recalled, though this may raise significant constitutional issues. Per ANC rules, all members -- even elected officials -- fulfill their functions according to the will of the party.
But the real test will be whether Zuma is able to deliver the president's annual State of the Nation address due to take place before parliament on Thursday.
Zuma, whose term ends next year, was weakened last December, when Cyril Ramaphosa, the Deputy President, beat Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, a former cabinet minister who is also Zuma's ex-wife, in a leadership contest.
Ramaphosa has so far stayed away from the clamor for Zuma to resign but his supporters and those of Zuma are deeply divided inside the ANC.
Others did not mince their words. Julius Malema, leader of the broadly left-wing South African Economic Freedom Fighters, one of the country's main opposition parties, labeled Zuma as a "criminal" while reiterating his party's call for a motion of no confidence during a press conference in Johannesburg on Monday.
A motion of no confidence is scheduled for February 22. Zuma narrowly survived a no confidence vote last year.
Malema said Zuma is prepared to "defy" the leadership of his party, saying "he has done it before, he will do it again."
"What is even worse is that Zuma is not scared of impeachment," Malema also said, adding "the only way to remove him is through a motion of no confidence."
Why is Zuma in trouble?
Zuma has been mired in controversy for years. Last year, South Africa's Constitutional Court ordered him to repay millions of dollars in public funds spent on refurbishing his private homestead.
Zuma, a polygamist and father of more than 20 children, also faces more than 783 allegations of corruption relating to a 1990s arms deal.
He denies all the corruption allegations against him. And despite street protests, opposition maneuvering, and defections from his own party, he has always refused to step down voluntarily.